**Table of Contents**

*.......The Elegant Universe*

**THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE,****Brian Greene,**1999, 2003

```(annotated and with added

**bold highlights by Epsilon=One**)

**Chapter 4 - Microscopic Weirdness**

Matter Particles Are Also Waves

In the first few decades of the twentieth century, many of the greatest theoretical physicists grappled tirelessly to develop a mathematically sound and physically sensible understanding of these hitherto hidden microscopic features of reality. Under the leadership of Niels Bohr in Copenhagen, for example, substantial progress was made in explaining the properties of light emitted by glowing-hot hydrogen atoms. But this and other work prior to the mid-1920s was more a makeshift union of nineteenth-century ideas with newfound quantum concepts than a coherent framework for understanding the physical universe. Compared with the clear, logical framework of Newton's laws of motion or Maxwell's electromagnetic theory, the partially developed quantum theory was in a chaotic state.

In 1923, the young French nobleman Prince Louis de Broglie added a new element to the quantum fray, one that would shortly help to usher in the mathematical framework of modern quantum mechanics and that earned him the 1929 Nobel Prize in physics. Inspired by a chain of reasoning rooted in Einstein's special relativity, de Broglie suggested that the wave-particle duality applied not only to light but to matter as well. He reasoned, roughly speaking, that Einstein's

In the mid-1920s, Davisson and Germer, experimental physicists at the Bell telephone company, were studying how a beam of electrons bounces off of a chunk of nickel., The only detail that matters for us is that the nickel crystals in such an experiment act very much like the two slits in the experiment illustrated by the figures of the last section—in fact, it's perfectly okay to think of this experiment as being the same one illustrated there, except that a beam of electrons is used in place of a beam of light. We will adopt this point of view. When Davisson and Germer examined electrons making it through the two slits in the barrier by allowing them to hit a phosphorescent screen that recorded the location of impact of each electron by a bright dot—essentially what happens inside a television—they found something remarkable. A pattern very much akin to that of Figure 4.8 emerged. Their experiment therefore showed that electrons exhibit interference phenomena, the telltale sign of

Although we have described this in the case of electrons, similar experiments lead to the conclusion that

In 1923, the young French nobleman Prince Louis de Broglie added a new element to the quantum fray, one that would shortly help to usher in the mathematical framework of modern quantum mechanics and that earned him the 1929 Nobel Prize in physics. Inspired by a chain of reasoning rooted in Einstein's special relativity, de Broglie suggested that the wave-particle duality applied not only to light but to matter as well. He reasoned, roughly speaking, that Einstein's

*E = mc˛*relates mass to energy, that Planck and Einstein had related energy to the frequency of waves, and therefore, by combining the two, mass should have a wave-like incarnation as well. After carefully working through this line of thought, he suggested that just as light is a wave phenomenon that quantum theory shows to have an equally valid particle description, an electron—which we normally think of as being a particle—might have an equally valid description in terms of waves. Einstein immediately took to de Broglie's idea, as it was a natural outgrowth of his own contributions of relativity and of photons. Even so, nothing is a substitute for experimental proof. Such proof was soon to come from the work of Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer.In the mid-1920s, Davisson and Germer, experimental physicists at the Bell telephone company, were studying how a beam of electrons bounces off of a chunk of nickel., The only detail that matters for us is that the nickel crystals in such an experiment act very much like the two slits in the experiment illustrated by the figures of the last section—in fact, it's perfectly okay to think of this experiment as being the same one illustrated there, except that a beam of electrons is used in place of a beam of light. We will adopt this point of view. When Davisson and Germer examined electrons making it through the two slits in the barrier by allowing them to hit a phosphorescent screen that recorded the location of impact of each electron by a bright dot—essentially what happens inside a television—they found something remarkable. A pattern very much akin to that of Figure 4.8 emerged. Their experiment therefore showed that electrons exhibit interference phenomena, the telltale sign of

*waves.*At dark spots on the phosphorescent screen, electrons were somehow "canceling each other out" just like the overlapping peak and trough of water waves. Even if the beam of fired electrons was "thinned" so that, for instance, only one electron was emitted every ten seconds, the individual electrons still built up the bright and dark bands—one spot at a time. Somehow, as with photons, individual electrons "interfere" with themselves in the sense that individual electrons, over time, reconstruct the interference pattern associated with waves. We are inescapably forced to conclude that each electron embodies a wave-like character in conjunction with its more familiar depiction as a particle.Although we have described this in the case of electrons, similar experiments lead to the conclusion that

*all*matter has a wave-like character. But how does this jibe with our real-world experience of matter as being solid and sturdy, and in no way wave-like? Well, de Broglie set down a formula for the wavelength of matter waves, and it shows that the wave-length is proportional to Planck's constant . (More precisely, the wavelength is given by divided by the material body's momentum.) Since is so small, the resulting wavelengths are similarly minuscule compared with everyday scales. This is why the wave-like character of matter becomes directly apparent only upon careful microscopic investigation. Just as the large value of c, the speed of light, obscures much of the true nature of space and time, the smallness of obscures the wave-like aspects of matter in the day-to-day world.