**THE FABRIC of the COSMOS,****Brian Greene,**2004

```(annotated and with added

**bold highlights by Epsilon=One**)

**Chapter 12 - The World on a String**

Why Does String Theory Work?

Before the development of string theory, the path of scientific progress was strewn with unsuccessful attempts to merge gravity and quantum mechanics. So what is it about string theory that has allowed it to succeed thus far? We've described how Schwarz and Scherk realized, much to their surprise, that one particular string vibrational pattern had just the right properties to be the graviton particle, and how they then concluded that string theory provided a ready-made framework for merging the two theories. Historically, that is indeed how the power and promise of string theory was fortuitously realized, but as an explanation for why the string approach succeeded where all other attempts failed, it leaves us wanting. Figure 12.2 encapsulates the conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics — on ultrashort distance (and time) scales, the frenzy of quantum uncertainty becomes so violent that the smooth geometrical model of spacetime underlying general relativity is destroyed — so the question is, How does string theory solve the problem? How does string theory calm the tumultuous fluctuations of spacetime at ultramicroscopic distances?

The main new feature of string theory is that its basic ingredient is not a point particle — a dot of no size — but instead is an object that has spatial extent. This difference is the key to string theory's success in merging gravity and quantum mechanics.

The wild frenzy depicted in Figure 12.2 arises from applying the uncertainty principle to the gravitational field; on smaller and smaller scales, the uncertainty principle, implies that fluctuations in the gravitational field get larger and larger. On such extremely tiny distance scales, though, we should describe the gravitational field in terms of its fundamental constituents, gravitons, much as on molecular scales we should describe water in terms of H2O molecules. In this language, the frenzied gravitational field undulations should be thought of as large numbers of gravitons wildly flitting this way and that, like bits of dirt and dust caught up in a ferocious tornado. Now, if gravitons were point particles (as envisioned in all earlier, failed attempts to merge general relativity and quantum mechanics), Figure 12.2 would accurately reflect their collective behavior: ever shorter distance scales, ever greater agitation. But string theory changes this conclusion.

In string theory, each graviton is a vibrating string — something that is not a point, but instead is roughly a Planck length (10^-33 centimeters) in size.

That is the vital realization. The uncontrollable quantum fluctuations illustrated in Figure 12.2 arise only when we consider quantum uncertainty on arbitrarily short distance scales — scales shorter than the Planck length. In a theory based on zero-sized point particles, such an application of the uncertainty principle is warranted and, as we see in the figure, this leads us to a wild terrain beyond the reach of Einstein's general relativity. A theory based on strings, however, includes a built-in fail-safe. In string theory, strings are the smallest ingredient, so our journey into the ultramicroscopic comes to an end when we reach the Planck length — the size of strings themselves. In Figure 12.2, the Planck scale is represented by the second highest level; as you can see, on such scales there are still undulations in the spatial fabric because the gravitational field is still subject to quantum jitters. But the jitters are mild enough to avoid irreparable conflict with general relativity. The precise mathematics underlying general relativity must be modified to incorporate these quantum undulations, but this can be done and the math remains sensible.

Thus, by limiting how small you can get, string theory limits how violent the jitters of the gravitational field become — and the limit is just big enough to avoid the catastrophic clash between quantum mechanics and general relativity. In this way, string theory quells the antagonism between the two frameworks and is able, for the first time to join them.

The main new feature of string theory is that its basic ingredient is not a point particle — a dot of no size — but instead is an object that has spatial extent. This difference is the key to string theory's success in merging gravity and quantum mechanics.

The wild frenzy depicted in Figure 12.2 arises from applying the uncertainty principle to the gravitational field; on smaller and smaller scales, the uncertainty principle, implies that fluctuations in the gravitational field get larger and larger. On such extremely tiny distance scales, though, we should describe the gravitational field in terms of its fundamental constituents, gravitons, much as on molecular scales we should describe water in terms of H2O molecules. In this language, the frenzied gravitational field undulations should be thought of as large numbers of gravitons wildly flitting this way and that, like bits of dirt and dust caught up in a ferocious tornado. Now, if gravitons were point particles (as envisioned in all earlier, failed attempts to merge general relativity and quantum mechanics), Figure 12.2 would accurately reflect their collective behavior: ever shorter distance scales, ever greater agitation. But string theory changes this conclusion.

In string theory, each graviton is a vibrating string — something that is not a point, but instead is roughly a Planck length (10^-33 centimeters) in size.

**And since the gravitons are the finest, most elementary constituents of a gravitational field, it makes no sense to talk about the behavior of gravitational fields on sub-Planck length scales. Just as resolution on your TV screen is limited by the size of individual pixels, resolution of the gravitational field in string theory is limited by the size of gravitons. Thus, the nonzero size of gravitons (and everything else) in string theory sets a limit, at roughly the Planck scale, to how finely a gravitational field can be resolved.***12*That is the vital realization. The uncontrollable quantum fluctuations illustrated in Figure 12.2 arise only when we consider quantum uncertainty on arbitrarily short distance scales — scales shorter than the Planck length. In a theory based on zero-sized point particles, such an application of the uncertainty principle is warranted and, as we see in the figure, this leads us to a wild terrain beyond the reach of Einstein's general relativity. A theory based on strings, however, includes a built-in fail-safe. In string theory, strings are the smallest ingredient, so our journey into the ultramicroscopic comes to an end when we reach the Planck length — the size of strings themselves. In Figure 12.2, the Planck scale is represented by the second highest level; as you can see, on such scales there are still undulations in the spatial fabric because the gravitational field is still subject to quantum jitters. But the jitters are mild enough to avoid irreparable conflict with general relativity. The precise mathematics underlying general relativity must be modified to incorporate these quantum undulations, but this can be done and the math remains sensible.

Thus, by limiting how small you can get, string theory limits how violent the jitters of the gravitational field become — and the limit is just big enough to avoid the catastrophic clash between quantum mechanics and general relativity. In this way, string theory quells the antagonism between the two frameworks and is able, for the first time to join them.