**Table of Contents**

*.......The Elegant Universe*

**THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE,****Brian Greene,**1999, 2003

```(annotated and with added

**bold highlights by Epsilon=One**)

**Chapter 5 - The Need for a New Theory: General Relativity vs. Quantum Mechanics**

General Relativity vs. Quantum Mechanics

The usual realm of applicability of general relativity is that of large, astronomical distance scales. On such distances Einstein's theory implies that the absence of mass means that space is flat, as illustrated in Figure 3.3. In seeking to merge general relativity with quantum mechanics we must now change our focus sharply and examine the

As gravitational fields are reflected by curvature, these quantum fluctuations manifest themselves as increasingly violent distortions of the surrounding space. We see the glimmers of such distortions emerging in the fourth level of magnification in Figure 5.1. By probing to even smaller distance scales, as we do in the fifth level of Figure 5.1, we see that the random quantum mechanical undulations in the gravitational field correspond to such severe warpings of space that it no longer resembles a gently curving geometrical object such as the rubber-membrane analogy used in our discussion in Chapter 3. Rather, it takes on the frothing, turbulent, twisted form illustrated in the uppermost part of the figure. John Wheeler coined the term

In practice, this conflict rears its head in a very concrete manner.

Notice, however, that as we recede to more ordinary distances (following the sequence of drawings in Figure 5.1 in reverse), the random, violent small-scale undulations cancel each other out—in much the same way that, on average, our compulsive borrower's bank account shows no evidence of his compulsion—and the concept of a smooth geometry for the fabric of the universe once again becomes accurate. It's like what you experience when you look at a dot-matrix picture: From far away the dots that compose the picture blend together and create the impression of a smooth image whose variations in lightness seamlessly and gently change from one area to another. When you inspect the picture on finer distance scales you realize, however, that it markedly differs from its smooth, long-distance appearance. It is nothing but a collection of discrete dots, each quite separate from the others. But note that you become aware of the discrete nature of the picture only when you examine it on the smallest of scales; from far away it looks smooth. Similarly, the fabric of space-time appears to be smooth except when examined with ultramicroscopic precision. This is why general relativity works on large enough distance (and time) scales—the scales relevant for many typical astronomical applications—but is rendered inconsistent on short distance (and time) scales. The central tenet of a smooth and gently curving geometry is justified in the large but breaks down due to quantum fluctuations when pushed to the small.

The basic principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics allow us to calculate the approximate distance scales below which one would have to shrink in order for the pernicious phenomenon of Figure 5.1 to become apparent. The smallness of Planck's constant—which governs the strength of quantum effects—and the intrinsic weakness of the gravitational force team up to yield a result called the

And so we see that the incompatability between general relativity and quantum mechanics becomes apparent only in a rather esoteric realm of the universe. For this reason you might well ask whether it's worth worrying about. In fact, the physics community does not speak with a unified voice when addressing this issue. There are those physicists who are willing to note the problem, but happily go about using quantum mechanics and general relativity for problems whose typical lengths far exceed the Planck length, as their research requires. There are other physicists, however, who are deeply unsettled by the fact that the two foundational pillars of physics as we know it are at their core fundamentally incompatible, regardless of the ultramicroscopic distances that must be probed to expose the problem. The incompatibility, they argue, points to an essential flaw in our understanding of the physical universe. This opinion rests on an unprovable but profoundly felt view that the universe, if understood at its deepest and most elementary level, can be described by a logically sound theory whose parts are harmoniously united. And surely, regardless of how central this incompatibility is to their own research, most physicists find it hard to believe that, at rock bottom, our deepest theoretical understanding of the universe will be composed of a mathematically inconsistent patchwork of two powerful yet conflicting explanatory frameworks

Physicists have made numerous attempts at modifying either general relativity or quantum mechanics in some manner so as to avoid the conflict, but the attempts, although often bold and ingenious, have met with failure after failure.

That is, until the discovery of superstring theory.

*microscopic*properties of space. We illustrate this in Figure 5.1 by zooming in and sequentially magnifying ever smaller regions of the spatial fabric. At first, as we zoom in, not much happens; as we see in the first three levels of magnification in Figure 5.1, the structure of space retains the same basic form. Reasoning from a purely classical standpoint, we would expect this placid and flat image of space to persist all the way to arbitrarily small length scales. But quantum mechanics changes this conclusion radically.**inherent in the uncertainty principle—***Everything*is subject to the quantum fluctuations**even the gravitational field.**Although classical reasoning implies that empty space has zero gravitational field, quantum mechanics shows that on average it is zero, but that its actual value undulates up and down due to quantum fluctuations. Moreover, the uncertainty principle tells us that the size of the undulations of the gravitational field gets larger as we focus our attention on smaller regions of space. Quantum mechanics shows that nothing likes to be cornered; narrowing the spatial focus leads to ever larger undulations.**Figure 5.1**By sequentially magnifying a region of space, its ultramicroscopic properties can be probed. Attempts to merge general relativity and quantum mechanics run up against the violent quantum foam emerging at the highest level of magnification.

*quantum foam*to describe the frenzy revealed by such an ultramicroscopic examination of space (and time)—it describes an unfamiliar arena of the universe in which the conventional notions of left and right, back and forth, up and down (and even of before and after) lose their meaning. It is on such short distance scales that we encounter the fundamental incompatibility between general relativity and quantum mechanics.*The notion of a***smooth spatial geometry, the central principle of general relativity, is destroyed by the violent fluctuations of the quantum world on short distance scales.****On ultramicroscopic scales, the central feature of quantum mechanics—the uncertainty principle—is in direct conflict with the central feature of general relativity—the smooth geometrical model of space (and of spacetime).**In practice, this conflict rears its head in a very concrete manner.

**Calculations that merge the equations of general relativity and those of quantum mechanics typically yield**one and**the same ridiculous answer: infinity.****(Epsilon=One: Many enigmas of physics are the result of physicists' poor understanding of**Like a sharp rap on the wrist from an old-time schoolteacher, an infinite answer is nature's way of telling us that we are doing something that is quite wrong.*Infinity*)**The equations of general relativity cannot handle the roiling frenzy of quantum foam.***6*Notice, however, that as we recede to more ordinary distances (following the sequence of drawings in Figure 5.1 in reverse), the random, violent small-scale undulations cancel each other out—in much the same way that, on average, our compulsive borrower's bank account shows no evidence of his compulsion—and the concept of a smooth geometry for the fabric of the universe once again becomes accurate. It's like what you experience when you look at a dot-matrix picture: From far away the dots that compose the picture blend together and create the impression of a smooth image whose variations in lightness seamlessly and gently change from one area to another. When you inspect the picture on finer distance scales you realize, however, that it markedly differs from its smooth, long-distance appearance. It is nothing but a collection of discrete dots, each quite separate from the others. But note that you become aware of the discrete nature of the picture only when you examine it on the smallest of scales; from far away it looks smooth. Similarly, the fabric of space-time appears to be smooth except when examined with ultramicroscopic precision. This is why general relativity works on large enough distance (and time) scales—the scales relevant for many typical astronomical applications—but is rendered inconsistent on short distance (and time) scales. The central tenet of a smooth and gently curving geometry is justified in the large but breaks down due to quantum fluctuations when pushed to the small.

The basic principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics allow us to calculate the approximate distance scales below which one would have to shrink in order for the pernicious phenomenon of Figure 5.1 to become apparent. The smallness of Planck's constant—which governs the strength of quantum effects—and the intrinsic weakness of the gravitational force team up to yield a result called the

*Planck length,*which is small almost beyond imagination: a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimeter (10^-33 centimeter).**The fifth level in Figure 5.1 thus schematically depicts the ultramicroscopic, sub—Planck length landscape of the universe. To get a sense of scale, if we were to magnify an atom to the size of the known universe, the Planck length would barely expand to the height of an average tree.***7*And so we see that the incompatability between general relativity and quantum mechanics becomes apparent only in a rather esoteric realm of the universe. For this reason you might well ask whether it's worth worrying about. In fact, the physics community does not speak with a unified voice when addressing this issue. There are those physicists who are willing to note the problem, but happily go about using quantum mechanics and general relativity for problems whose typical lengths far exceed the Planck length, as their research requires. There are other physicists, however, who are deeply unsettled by the fact that the two foundational pillars of physics as we know it are at their core fundamentally incompatible, regardless of the ultramicroscopic distances that must be probed to expose the problem. The incompatibility, they argue, points to an essential flaw in our understanding of the physical universe. This opinion rests on an unprovable but profoundly felt view that the universe, if understood at its deepest and most elementary level, can be described by a logically sound theory whose parts are harmoniously united. And surely, regardless of how central this incompatibility is to their own research, most physicists find it hard to believe that, at rock bottom, our deepest theoretical understanding of the universe will be composed of a mathematically inconsistent patchwork of two powerful yet conflicting explanatory frameworks

Physicists have made numerous attempts at modifying either general relativity or quantum mechanics in some manner so as to avoid the conflict, but the attempts, although often bold and ingenious, have met with failure after failure.

That is, until the discovery of superstring theory.

*8***(Epsilon=One: You are correct concerning the 1955 version of String Theory that subsequently evolved to the symbolic Pulsoid Theory. The later academic versions of String Theory fail because the axiomatic Standard Model forces they describe are incomplete—without a first postulate. The forces that academia is trying to unify are not only metaphysical; but, one—gravity, unlike the others, does not originate from a "spinning" Resoloid. Gravity is a direct action, hierarchic force of an entirely different class.)**