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  • Messenger Particles

    Table of Contents
    .......The Elegant Universe
    THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE, Brian Greene, 1999, 2003
    ```(annotated and with added bold highlights by Epsilon=One)
    Chapter 5 - The Need for a New Theory: General Relativity vs. Quantum Mechanics
    Messenger Particles
    or
    According to the standard model, just as the photon is the smallest constituent of an electromagnetic field, the strong and the weak force fields have smallest constituents as well. (Epsilon=One: This similarity of "constituents,"—more properly the resonance from the harmony of fundamental oscillations—is because all three—photons, the strong force, and the weak force—originate from Resoloids that are the most fundamental phenomena within a Pulsoid.

    Gravity is a hierarchic phenomenon of the entire Pulsoid's nature of accelerating expansion: i.e. a fundamental example of the Pauli exclusion principle). Pulsoids are often referred to as "dark matter" because their energy is held within the Pulsoid's dual "envelope fields" generated between the Pulsoids' four foci as symbolized by the Emergent Ellipsoid of Pulsoid Theory; whereas, photons, (bosons) are expelled from critically compressed Pulsoids; and thus, are not restricted within the dual "envelopes.")
    As we discussed briefly in Chapter 1, the smallest bundles of the strong force are known as gluons, and those of the weak force are known as weak gauge bosons (or more precisely, the W and Z bosons).The standard model instructs us to think of these force particles as having no internal structure—in this framework they are every bit as elementary as the particles in the three families of matter.

    The photons, gluons, and weak gauge bosons provide the microscopic mechanism for transmitting the forces they constitute. For example, when one electrically charged particle repels another of like electric charge, you can think of it roughly in terms of each particle being surrounded by an electric field—a "cloud" or "mist" of "electric-essence"—and the force each particle feels arises from the repulsion between their respective force fields. The more precise microscopic description of how they repel each other, though, is somewhat different. An electromagnetic field is composed of a swarm of photons; the interaction between two charged particles actually arises from their "shooting" photons back and forth between themselves. In rough analogy to the way in which you can affect a fellow ice-skater's motion and your own by hurling a barrage of bowling balls at him or her, two electrically charged particles influence each other by exchanging these smallest bundles of light.

    An important failing of the ice-skater analogy is that the exchange of bowling balls is always "repulsive"—it always drives the skaters apart. On the contrary, two oppositely charged particles also interact through the exchange of photons, although the resulting electromagnetic force is attractive. It's as if the photon is not so much the transmitter of the force per se, but rather the transmitter of a message of how the recipient must respond to the force in question. For like-charged particles, the photon carries the message "move apart," while for oppositely charged particles it carries the message "come together." For this reason the photon is sometimes referred to as the messenger particle for the electromagnetic force. Similarly, the gluons and weak gauge bosons are the messenger particles for the strong and weak nuclear forces. The strong force, which keeps quarks locked up inside of protons and neutrons, arises from individual quarks exchanging gluons. The gluons, so to speak, provide the "glue" that keeps these subatomic particles stuck together. The weak force, which is responsible for certain kinds of particle transmutations involved in radioactive decay, is mediated by the weak gauge bosons.
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    Table of Contents
    .......The Elegant Universe
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