**Table of Contents**

*.......The Elegant Universe*

**THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE,****Brian Greene,**1999, 2003

```(annotated and with added

**bold highlights by Epsilon=One**)

**Chapter 2 - Space, Time, and the Eye of the Beholder**

Intuition and Its Flaws

Common experience highlights certain ways in which observations by such individuals differ. Trees alongside a highway, for example, appear to be moving from the viewpoint of a driver but appear stationary to a hitchhiker sitting on a guardrail. Similarly, the dashboard of the automobile does not appear to be moving from the viewpoint of the driver (one hopes!), but like the rest of the car, it does appear to be moving from the viewpoint of the hitchhiker. These are such basic and intuitive properties of how the world works that we hardly take note of them.

Special relativity, however, proclaims that the differences in observations between two such individuals are more subtle and profound. It makes the strange claim that observers in relative motion will have different perceptions of distance and of time. This means, as we shall see, that identical wristwatches worn by two individuals in relative motion will tick at

Similarly, observers in relative motion carrying identical tape measures will not agree on the lengths of distances measured. Again, this is not due to inaccuracies in the measuring devices or to errors in how they are used. The most accurate measuring devices in the world confirm that space and time—as measured by distances and durations—are not experienced identically by everyone. In the precise way delineated by Einstein, special relativity resolves the conflict between our intuition about motion and the properties of light, but there is a price: individuals who are moving with respect to each other will not agree on their observations of either space or time.

It has been almost a century since Einstein informed the world of his dramatic discovery, yet most of us still see space and time in absolute terms. Special relativity is not in our bones—we do not feel it. Its implications are not a central part of our intuition. The reason for this is quite simple: The effects of special relativity depend upon how fast one moves, and at the speeds of cars, planes, or even space shuttles, these effects are minuscule. Differences in perceptions of space and of time between individuals planted on the earth and those traveling in cars or planes do occur, but they are so small that they go unnoticed. However, were one to take a trip in a futuristic space vehicle traveling at a substantial fraction of light speed, the effects of relativity would become plainly obvious. This, of course, is still in the realm of science fiction. Nevertheless, as we shall discuss in later sections, clever experiments allow clear and precise observation of the relative properties of space and time predicted by Einstein's theory.

To get a sense of the scales involved, imagine that the year is 1970 and big, fast cars are in. Slim, having just spent all his savings on a new Trans Am, goes with his brother Jim to the local drag strip to give the car the kind of test-drive forbidden by the dealer. After revving up the car, Slim streaks down the mile-long strip at 120 miles per hour while Jim stands on the sideline and times him. Wanting an independent confirmation, Slim also uses a stopwatch to determine how long it takes his new car to traverse the track. Prior to Einstein's work, no one would have questioned that if both Slim and Jim have properly functioning stopwatches, each will measure the identical elapsed time. But according to special relativity, while Jim will measure an elapsed time of 30 seconds, Slim's stopwatch will record an elapsed time of 29.99999999999952 seconds—

There will be a similar disagreement on measurements of length. For example, on another test run Jim uses a clever trick to measure the length of Slim's new car: he starts his stopwatch just as the front of the car reaches him and he stops it just as the back of the car passes. Since Jim knows that Slim is speeding along at 120 miles per hour, he is able to figure out the length of the car by multiplying this speed by the elapsed time on his stopwatch. Again, prior to Einstein, no one would have questioned that the length Jim measures in this indirect way would agree exactly with the length Slim carefully measured when the car sat motionless on the showroom floor. Special relativity proclaims, on the contrary, that if Slim and Jim carry out precise measurements in this manner and Slim finds the car to be, say, exactly 16 feet long, then Jim's measurement will find the car to be 15.99999999999974 feet long—

Although the differences are extremely small, they show a fatal flaw in the commonly held conception of universal and immutable space and time. As the relative velocity of individuals such as Slim and Jim gets larger, this flaw becomes increasingly apparent. To achieve noticeable differences, the speeds involved must be a sizeable fraction of the maximum possible speed—that of light—which Maxwell's theory and experimental measurements show to be about 186,000 miles per second, or about 670 million miles per hour. This is fast enough to circle the earth more than seven times in a second. If Slim, for example, were to travel not at 120 miles per hour but at 580 million miles per hour (about 87 percent of light speed), the mathematics of special relativity predicts that Jim would measure the length of the car to be about eight feet, which is substantially different from Slim's measurement (as well as the specifications in the owner's manual). Similarly, the time to traverse the drag strip according to Jim will be about

Since such enormous speeds are far beyond anything currently attainable, the effects of "time dilation" and "Lorentz contraction," as these phenomena are technically called, are extremely small in day-to-day life. If we happened to live in a world in which things typically traveled at speeds close to that of light, these properties of space and time would be so completely intuitive—since we would experience them constantly—that they would deserve no more discussion than the apparent motion of trees on the side of the road mentioned at the outset of this chapter. But since we don't live in such a world, these features are unfamiliar. As we shall see, understanding and accepting them requires that we subject our worldview to a thorough makeover.

Special relativity, however, proclaims that the differences in observations between two such individuals are more subtle and profound. It makes the strange claim that observers in relative motion will have different perceptions of distance and of time. This means, as we shall see, that identical wristwatches worn by two individuals in relative motion will tick at

*different rates*and hence will not agree on the amount of time that elapses between chosen events. Special relativity demonstrates that this statement does not slander the accuracy of the wristwatches involved; rather, it is a true statement about time itself.Similarly, observers in relative motion carrying identical tape measures will not agree on the lengths of distances measured. Again, this is not due to inaccuracies in the measuring devices or to errors in how they are used. The most accurate measuring devices in the world confirm that space and time—as measured by distances and durations—are not experienced identically by everyone. In the precise way delineated by Einstein, special relativity resolves the conflict between our intuition about motion and the properties of light, but there is a price: individuals who are moving with respect to each other will not agree on their observations of either space or time.

It has been almost a century since Einstein informed the world of his dramatic discovery, yet most of us still see space and time in absolute terms. Special relativity is not in our bones—we do not feel it. Its implications are not a central part of our intuition. The reason for this is quite simple: The effects of special relativity depend upon how fast one moves, and at the speeds of cars, planes, or even space shuttles, these effects are minuscule. Differences in perceptions of space and of time between individuals planted on the earth and those traveling in cars or planes do occur, but they are so small that they go unnoticed. However, were one to take a trip in a futuristic space vehicle traveling at a substantial fraction of light speed, the effects of relativity would become plainly obvious. This, of course, is still in the realm of science fiction. Nevertheless, as we shall discuss in later sections, clever experiments allow clear and precise observation of the relative properties of space and time predicted by Einstein's theory.

To get a sense of the scales involved, imagine that the year is 1970 and big, fast cars are in. Slim, having just spent all his savings on a new Trans Am, goes with his brother Jim to the local drag strip to give the car the kind of test-drive forbidden by the dealer. After revving up the car, Slim streaks down the mile-long strip at 120 miles per hour while Jim stands on the sideline and times him. Wanting an independent confirmation, Slim also uses a stopwatch to determine how long it takes his new car to traverse the track. Prior to Einstein's work, no one would have questioned that if both Slim and Jim have properly functioning stopwatches, each will measure the identical elapsed time. But according to special relativity, while Jim will measure an elapsed time of 30 seconds, Slim's stopwatch will record an elapsed time of 29.99999999999952 seconds—

*a tiny bit less.*Of course, this difference is so small that it could be detected only through a measurement whose accuracy is well beyond the capacity of hand-held stopwatches run by the press of a finger, Olympic-quality timing systems, or even the most precisely engineered atomic clocks. It is no wonder that our everyday experiences do not reveal the fact that the passage of time depends upon our state of motion.There will be a similar disagreement on measurements of length. For example, on another test run Jim uses a clever trick to measure the length of Slim's new car: he starts his stopwatch just as the front of the car reaches him and he stops it just as the back of the car passes. Since Jim knows that Slim is speeding along at 120 miles per hour, he is able to figure out the length of the car by multiplying this speed by the elapsed time on his stopwatch. Again, prior to Einstein, no one would have questioned that the length Jim measures in this indirect way would agree exactly with the length Slim carefully measured when the car sat motionless on the showroom floor. Special relativity proclaims, on the contrary, that if Slim and Jim carry out precise measurements in this manner and Slim finds the car to be, say, exactly 16 feet long, then Jim's measurement will find the car to be 15.99999999999974 feet long—

*a tiny bit less.*As with the measurement of time, this is such a minuscule difference that ordinary instruments are just not accurate enough to detect it.Although the differences are extremely small, they show a fatal flaw in the commonly held conception of universal and immutable space and time. As the relative velocity of individuals such as Slim and Jim gets larger, this flaw becomes increasingly apparent. To achieve noticeable differences, the speeds involved must be a sizeable fraction of the maximum possible speed—that of light—which Maxwell's theory and experimental measurements show to be about 186,000 miles per second, or about 670 million miles per hour. This is fast enough to circle the earth more than seven times in a second. If Slim, for example, were to travel not at 120 miles per hour but at 580 million miles per hour (about 87 percent of light speed), the mathematics of special relativity predicts that Jim would measure the length of the car to be about eight feet, which is substantially different from Slim's measurement (as well as the specifications in the owner's manual). Similarly, the time to traverse the drag strip according to Jim will be about

*twice*as long as the time measured by Slim.Since such enormous speeds are far beyond anything currently attainable, the effects of "time dilation" and "Lorentz contraction," as these phenomena are technically called, are extremely small in day-to-day life. If we happened to live in a world in which things typically traveled at speeds close to that of light, these properties of space and time would be so completely intuitive—since we would experience them constantly—that they would deserve no more discussion than the apparent motion of trees on the side of the road mentioned at the outset of this chapter. But since we don't live in such a world, these features are unfamiliar. As we shall see, understanding and accepting them requires that we subject our worldview to a thorough makeover.