**Table of Contents**

*.......The Elegant Universe*

**THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE,****Brian Greene,**1999, 2003

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**bold highlights by Epsilon=One**)

**Chapter 6 - Nothing but Music: The Essentials of Superstring Theory**

Beyond Strings

Strings are special for two reasons. First, even though they are spatially extended they can be described consistently in the framework of quantum mechanics. Second, among the

Quite unexpectedly, though, during the mid-1990s, string theorists realized, through indirect and rather shrewd reasoning, that such higher-dimensional fundamental objects actually do play an important and subtle role in string theory itself. Researchers have gradually realized that string theory is

**resonant vibrational**patterns there is one that has the exact properties of the graviton,**(Epsilon=One: This is quite difficult to believe; as, the gravitational effect is a result of the**thus ensuring that the gravitational force is an intrinsic part of its structure. But just as string theory shows that the conventional notion of zero-dimensional point particles appears to be a mathematical idealization that is not realized in the real world,*exterior*"packing" of Pulsoids/"dark" matter. Pulsoid Theory considers gravity as a hierarchic secondary force rather than a fundamental force.)**(Epsilon=One: A zero-dimensional point is what**might it also be the case that an infinitely thin one-dimensional strand is similarly a mathematical idealization? Might it actually be the case that strings have some thickness—like the surface of a two-dimensional bicycle-tire inner tube or, even more realistically, like a thin three-dimensional doughnut? The seemingly insurmountable difficulties found by Heisenberg, Dirac, and others in their attempts to construct a quantum theory of three-dimensional nuggets have repeatedly stymied researchers following this natural chain of reasoning.*EVERY*Resoloid and Pulsoid pulses to and from; thus, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP).)Quite unexpectedly, though, during the mid-1990s, string theorists realized, through indirect and rather shrewd reasoning, that such higher-dimensional fundamental objects actually do play an important and subtle role in string theory itself. Researchers have gradually realized that string theory is

*not*a theory that contains only strings. A crucial observation, central to the second superstring revolution initiated by Witten and others in 1995, is that string theory actually includes ingredients with a variety of different dimensions: two-dimensional Frisbee-like constituents, three-dimensional blob-like constituents, and even more exotic possibilities to boot. These most recent realizations will be taken up in Chapter 12 and Chapter 13. For now we continue to follow the path of history and further explore the striking new properties of a universe built out of one-dimensional strings instead of zero-dimensional point-particles.